Shanti Kaimal, BDS, MS

Clinical Associate Professor


Office Phone


Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Diagnostic and Biological Sciences
Temporomandibular Joint Disorder (TMD)/Orofacial Pain, Division of
Director, Advanced Education Program in Orofacial Pain


University of Minnesota (Oral Medicine), 2012
MDS, Government Dental College (Trivandrum, Kerala, India) (Oral Medicine and Radiology), 1997
Certificate and Master's, University of Minnesota, TMD and Orofacial Pain
Regional Dental College (Guwahati, Assam, India) (Dentistry), 1993

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I graduated from the Regional Dental College in Assam, India in 1993 where I received my dental degree. I completed my residency in Oral Medicine and Radiology from the Government Dental College, Trivandrum, India in 1997. I started working as a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology at the Mahatma Gandhi Dental College and Hospital in Pondicherry, India until 2001 when I moved to the United States. I joined an NIH funded TMJ Implant Registry and Repository working on research in temporomandibular disorders. Currently, I hold an appointment as Clinical Assistant Professor in the Division of TMD and Orofacial Pain and the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Department of Diagnostic and Biological Sciences at the University of Minnesota. My research interests include the etiology of temporomandibular disorders, particularly the role of hormones, and management of oral mucosal diseases.


Research Summary/Interests

  • Temporomandibular disorders
  • Oral mucosal diseases


Alonso A, Kaimal S, Look J, Fricton J, Myers S, & Kehl L. A quantitative evaluation of inflammatory cells in human temporomandibular joint tissues from patients with and without implants. J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 67(4):788-96, 2009.

Beriaghi S, Myers SL, Jensen SA, Kaimal S, Chan CM, Schaefer GB. Cleft lip and palate: association with other congenital malformations. J Clin Pediatr Dent, 33(3):207-10, 2009.

Myers, S.L., Kaimal, S., Springsteen, J., Ferreira, J., Ko, C-C., Fricton, J. Development of a National TMJ Implant Registry and Repository. Northwest Dent, 86(6):13-18, 2007.

Kaimal S., Collier D. J., Myers S. L., Rhodus N. L., Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Northwest Dent, 83(1): 13-22,54, 2004.

Rhodus N. L, Myers S. L., Kaimal S., Diagnosis and Management of Oral Lichen Planus, Northwest Dentistry, 82(2): 17-25, 2003.

Myers S. L., Rhodus N. L., Parsons H. M., Hodges J. S., Kaimal S., A retrospective survey of oral lichenoid lesions: revisiting the diagnostic process for oral lichen planus (OLP), Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 93(6):676-81, 2002.

Sreelatha K. T., Kaimal S., Dentin dysplasia-A case report, Kerala Dental Journal, 22(3): 91-93, 1999.

Anil S, Kaimal S., Beena V. T., Oral hairy leukoplakia-A distinct clinical lesion, CARC Calling, 7(4): 39-41, 1994.

Book Chapter and Monograph

1. Kaimal S, Leon-Salazar V. Neuromuscular diseases and pain of the orofacial complex. In SL Myers and A Curran (Eds), Principles of General and Head and Neck Pathology for Dental Hygiene Practice (publication date 2013). Philadelphia: FA Davis Company.

2. Velly AM, Look J, Myers S, Ko CC, Kaimal S, Ferreira J, Springsteen J, Schiffman E, Rhodus N, Fricton J. Temporomandibular Muscle and Joint Disorders: Progress in Research with NICDR's TMJ Implant Registry and Repository. In: McNamara JA Jr, Kapila SD, eds. Temporomandibular Disorders and Orofacial Pain: Separating Controversy from Consensus. Monograph 46, Craniofacial Growth Series, Department of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry and Center for Human Growth and Development, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 2009; 265-281.

Abstracts Presented/Published - National/International Meetings

1. Kaimal S, Schiffman EL, John MT, Kang W, Ahmad M. Diagnostic accuracy of panoramic radiograph for detecting TMJ degenerative joint disease: A cross-sectional study. AAOP (Las Vegas) 2011.

2. SL Myers, E Enriquez, S Kaimal, S Beiraghi, J Fricton. Female predominance and associated co-morbidities in TMJD. Journal of Dental Research 90B:3621, 2011.

3. E Enriquez, S Kaimal, J Fricton, S Beiraghi, S Myers. Female Predominance of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders & Associated Co-Morbid Conditions in a Study Population in NIDCR's TIRR at the University of Minnesota. Deborah E. Powell Center for Women’s Health 8th Annual Women’s Health Research Conference, September 2011.

4. S Myers, AM Velly, J Swift, S Kaimal, W Kang, P Lenton, A (Carlson) Emery, J Fricton. NIDCR’s TMJ Implant Registry and Repository: Predicting outcomes of TMJ surgery. AADR (Washington DC) 2010.

5. 2009 Report of NIDCR's TMJ Implant Registry and Repository. S.L. Myers, A.M. Velly, S. Kaimal, W. Kang, P. Fernandes, P.A. Lenton, J. Swift, S. Beiraghi, W. Bowles, J. Look, and J.R. Fricton. Journal of Dental Research 88A:206, 2009.

6. Association between TMD Pain and Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Levels in Saliva. W. Bowles, A.M. Velly, S.L. Myers,S. Kaimal, P. Fernandes, P. Carlson, D. Sotillo, J. Springsteen, W. Kang, J. Swift, T. Nascimento, and J.R. Fricton. Journal of Dental Research 88A:343, 2009.

7. Heart Murmur and MVP in a TMJ Surgical Population. S.L. Myers, S. Kaimal, S. Beiraghi, W. Kang, and J.R. Fricton. Journal of Dental Research 88A:861, 2009.

8. Clinical and biological factors distinguishing subjects with and without pain. A.M. Velly, R.T. Lima, L.J. Kehl, P.A. Lenton, J.L. Springsteen, S. Kaimal, D.A. Besspiata, and E.L. Schiffman. Journal of Dental Research 88A:1436, 2009.

9. Kaimal S, Myers SL, Beiraghi S, DeRocher M, Velly AM, & Fricton J. Association of Heart Murmur and Mitral Valve Prolapse in TMD. J. Dent. Res., 87B: 842, 2008.

10. Velly AM, Kehl LJ, Swift J, Basi D, Hughes P, Lenton P, Jackson A, Springsteen J, Kaimal S, et al. The relationship between chronic TMJD pain, F2-isoprostane and comorbidities. J. Dent. Res., 87B: 839, 2008

11. Fricton J, Myers SL, Look J, Velly AM, Kaimal S, Ko C-C, et al. 2008 Status Report on the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research’s TMJ Implant Registry and Repository. AADR (Dallas) 2008.

12. WR Bowles, SL Myers, AM Velly, S Kaimal, PL Carlson, D Sotillo, J Springsteen, W Kang, J Swift, J Fricton. Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in saliva/serum of TMJ pain patients. AADR (Dallas) 2008.

13. Kaimal, S., Myers, S. L., and Fricton, J., Mast cells - important in TMD and TMJ implant host response? J. Dent. Res., 86A: 711, 2007.

14. Requicha-Ferreira, J., Kaimal, S., Ko, C. C., Fricton, J., and Myers, S. L., Inflammatory Cells in Degenerative TMJ Tissues: Correlation With TMD Symptoms, J. Dent. Res., 86A: 734, 2007.

15. Springsteen, J., Rhodus, N., Kaimal, S., and Myers, S. L., Mast Cells in Oral Lichen Planus: Methods of Histologic Characterization, J. Dent. Res., 86A: 1208, 2007.

16. Kaimal, S., Myers, S.L., and Fricton, J., Histologic characterization of inflammatory cell types in temporomandibular joint tissues, J. Dent. Res. 85B: 427, 2006.

17. Myers, S., Kaimal, S., Springsteen, J., Patel, K. J., Nazmul-Hossain, A., Moser, K., and Rhodus, N.L., Comparison of Salivary Gland Histopathology Diagnostic Criteria in Sjogren’s Syndrome, J Dent Res., 85(B): 1462, 2006.

18. Alonso, A., Kaimal, S., Li, Y., Fricton, J., Kehl, L., Look, J., Yakout, A. and Myers, S., Retrospective Study of Archived Human TMJ Tissues for Inflammatory Cell Types, The 4th International Conference on Orofacial Pain and Temporomandibular Disorders (ICOT), Sydney, Australia, 2005.

19. Guerrero J., Myers S. L., Ko C-C., Hodges J. S., Kaimal S., Li Y., and Harding Rose C. A., Multinucleated Giant Cells and Polymeric TMJ Implant Wear Particles, J Dent Res., 83(B) 2004.

20. Myers S. L., Kaimal S., Bacsik C. J., Rhodus N. L., Hodges J. S., Miller V. J., Estrogen Receptors in Archived Human TMJ Tissues-A Preliminary Analysis, J Dent Res., 81(B): 3193, 2002.

21. Kaimal S., Thomas P., Cockayne’s Syndrome, 2nd National Triple O Symposium, Mumbai, India, 2000.

22. Kaimal S., Sreelatha K.T., Osteomyelitis in a case of Osteopetrosis, 9th Annual Conference of the Indian Society for Dental Research, Trivandrum, India 1996.

23. Kaimal S., Sreelatha K. T., Jaw in Functional Disorders, National Symposium on Jaw Bone Diseases, The Indian Academy of Oral Medicine & Radiology, Bangalore, India 1996.